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        中华人民共和国公安部全国公安文学艺术联合会 主办  中国社会主义文艺学会法治文艺中心协办

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        读《论语》谈读书

        来源:网投 作者:张星

        《论语》二十篇里提到“学习”,就有六十多次,开篇讲的也是学习,学是行的开始,行是学的目的。“学而时习之”意思是:学习了之后,要在适当的时候实践它。“时”,在当时没有按时、时常的意思,“习”,也不是复习。

        五经六艺:孔子首创私学,教什么呢?“五经六艺”,五经即《诗经》《尚书》《礼记》《周易》《春秋》,六艺即礼乐射御书数五经是当时士子的话语体系,六艺是当时士子的基本技能。

        古时读书人四岁的时候,就会被父亲领到书屋,对着满屋的书籍,被父亲要求按照一定顺序,逐一熟记下来。检查时有但有停顿,就会挨戒尺,所以那时的读书人很多患有口吃,也大多博闻强记。每个人也都有自己的记忆方法,张溥有七录斋,胡适习惯每日写下所学,钱钟书有自己的知识卡库。

        晚年的陈寅恪双目失明,照样写出旁征博引的《柳如是别传》;写出“滚滚长江东逝水”的杨慎,被贬岭南,只身前往,单凭记忆也写出了几百万字的考据文章;据说“焚书坑儒”时《论语》也被悉数销毁,现传的《论语》也是西汉初年儒家弟子凭记忆默写下来的。

        学的内容总归是外在的,内化成自己潜意识里的自觉,才是目的。

        《孟子·梁惠王下(第14章)》中孟子给齐宣王说:小时候花了这么多精力学习,学得好的被你招过来任用,用的时候却又告诉他“你学的那些不行,得这样那样做”,为什么学校还那样教,你又干嘛一定选学得好的任用呢?孟子的反问告诉我们学而知而行,需要一定外部环境的支持,但更重要的还是依赖自己的坚守。

        子罕却玉:春秋时期,有一个宋国人得到了一块美玉,把它献给了宋国大臣子罕。献玉的人说:玉匠说这是快稀世宝玉,所以我才献给您。子罕听后说:你把这块美玉,当作宝贝,而我把不接受这块美玉,当作宝贝。

        杨震却金:东汉名臣杨震有一次路过昌邑县,县令王密是杨震的学生,白天出郊外迎接,晚上又带着重金表达恩情,杨震断然拒绝,王密于是悄悄说“这麽晚了,没人知道这件事”,杨震听后断喝道“天知、地知、你知、我知,怎么说没人知道”。“慎独”,就是所学所知内化的具体表反应。

        安石却酒:北宋名臣包拯,特别爱喝酒,在主持群牧司工作的时候,手下有两位有为青年,王安石司马光,可偏偏这两人讨厌喝酒。一天单位工作清闲,就开了一桌酒宴,席上包拯主动给司马光敬酒,司马光一开始是拒绝的,架不住包大人一再劝酒,就勉强喝了一杯。轮到王安石的时候,无论包大人笑脸劝酒,还是黑脸吼吓,以及桌上同僚的一致劝说,王安石岿然不为所动,就是不喝

        杨震却金、安石却酒、子罕却玉的时候,都是所谓“适当”的时候。学习的内容,有“道统”层面的,也有“技能”层面的,究竟是学“道”以统“技”,还是学“技”以达“道”,中外传统大有分歧,其实两者是可以并行不悖。践行所学的时候,需要熟悉所学以为所用,有时候也需要勇气,不能搞学是一套,做是另一套。

         

        [CropImg]张星.jpg 

        作者简介:张星,株洲市公安局董家段分局政工室民警,株洲市公安文联成员

         

         

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